Astronomers have measured the distance to the first open ring Einstein, reported in the journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters. It turned out that the light from the object came to us 10 billion years. Scientists hope that these data can be used to study dark matter and the history of the expansion of the Universe.
An Einstein ring occurs when the direction of propagation of the radiation coming from distant background galaxies is changing due to the gravity of another massive object (gravitational lens) — for example, individual galaxies or even galaxy clusters. The necessary condition is the location of the observer, the lens and the source along the same straight line. The deflection of light in gravitational field of a massive object, which is the effect of gravitational lensing, was one of the main predictions of the General theory of relativity. However, he thought that the ring is unlikely to ever see, but he was talking about the rings formed by stars, noting that the chances that the luminaries lined up to produce the effect of a “halo” is almost there.
However, in 1988, astronomers in the journal Science reported about the discovery of “impossible” rings. The object, dubbed the MG 1131+0456, was discovered by a system of radio telescopes Very Large Array survey of radio sources. However, despite the fact that since the registration of the MG 1131+0456 has been more than three decades, distance to the background source in this ring still has not been measured.
Astronomers Daniel stern (Daniel Stern) from the California Institute of technology, and Dominic Walton (Dominic J. Walton) from Cambridge University analyzed the archival data of the Keck telescopes, WISE and Chandra about the gravitational lizirovania quasars are heavily obscured by surrounding gas and dust. The number chosen for the study of sources in an unexpected way got and MG 1131+0456. Scientists have discovered that the value of the redshift is known for only one component of the gravitational lens, while the distance to the background galaxy is still unknown.
To find out, astronomers analyzed the spectroscopic data of MG 1131+0456 obtained with the Keck telescope from 1997 to 2007. Based on them, scientists have determined the redshift of the source: the value was z = 1,849. This means that the light from the object came to us 10 billion years. On the basis of these results, the authors also evaluated the mass lentinula galaxy, which was equivalent to 4.2×1011 solar masses.
The work of the astronomers opens the way for further studies of the Einstein ring. In particular, stern and Walton hope that the data on red shift will help to Refine the MG 1131+0456, and to study the properties of dark matter in galaxies lizirovania.
An Einstein ring is a classic example of strong gravitational lensing, but it can also make you weak. It is unable to form a clear image, but actively used for the statistical study of galaxies, clusters, dark matter, the CMB and the history of the Universe from the Big Bang. Read more about weak gravitational lensing, read our article “the universe is not in focus”.