Astrophysicists have determined the conditions of observation of the structure of the photon ring of a black hole

Astrophysics called the requirements under which it will be possible
study of individual parts of the photon ring of a black hole, not yet revealed by the Telescope the event horizon. These podolica needs
specifically displayed when observed in the interferometers, which will allow
to measure their characteristics and, consequently, to obtain accurate estimates of the mass and
angular momentum of a black hole. The necessary measurements can be carried out on a high
radio or with the help of ground-space interferometer, such as the projected
in our country, the device Millimetron, write the authors in the journal Science Advances.

A black hole is an object with extreme gravity,
which is so strong that not even light allows you to leave the area.
The distance at which even of radially moving photons are not able to retire from
the black hole at infinity, is called the event horizon. Normally, it
taken to be the size of a black hole.

In April 2019 was first obtained image shadow black
hole. This was done by means of a Telescope the event horizon — radiointerferometric
network telescopes, which collected data at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. It
blurred seen a luminous ring surrounding the dark area is the shadow of a black hole.

However, the size of this region is approximately equal to forty microseconds
arc, about two and a half times larger than the event horizon, as it does not
there are the trajectories of photons passing so close to the hole and reaching
the observer on Earth. Otherwise, you can say that all lines of sight passing
inside the ring, end at the event horizon, but some at the same
will have much to bend near a black hole.

American astrophysicists with the participation of Michael Johnson (Michael
Johnson) from the Harvard-Smithsonian center for astrophysics have determined the conditions of observation
the structure of this ring and call options tools that could
to identify. According to the findings of their work to see the first substructure, enough
observations at higher frequencies or a network connection the new radio telescope
in low Earth orbit. However, to further fix the picture, you will need
already tool on the moon or, even better, a big receiver in the Lagrange point L2, as proposed
to do in the framework of then project Millimetron.

From the theory it follows that around a black hole should be visible
an infinite set of nested ring-shaped images of the Universe, which correspond to
the trajectories of the photons that made a different number of half-turns around the black
hole before moving to the observer. This structure is not visible on the resulting in
last year the image, as its angular resolution is insufficient to
this. Scientists would consider these Podgorica, as the analysis of their parameters
would allow with high accuracy to measure the characteristics of a black hole (mass and
torque), as well as a new level to test predictions of the General theory
of relativity.

Surrounding the black hole accretion disk from the hot
substances is the dominant source of radiation in its surroundings. Therefore, when
the observation of a black hole we register as a direct illumination of the disk, so
the numerous rings which are distorted images of the same
drive which came to the observer with different time delays. Theoretical
estimates show that the overall brightness of the rings is about ten percent of the
total.

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