Bacteria of human language have formed consortia

American scientists have collected samples of bacterial biofilms with human language and restored the structure of the microbial community. It turned out that it doesn’t sound like what is happening in the gut: many microbes do not live alone but form on the surface of epithelial cells of the tongue consortia are complex structures of clusters of different bacteria genera and species. Each genus of bacteria occupies a certain position in the bacterial films: someone is committed to someone outside. This is probably due to the peculiarities of their metabolism. A study published in the journal Cell Reports.

In recent years, scientists increasingly work dedicate bacterial communities in the human body: it is believed that the colonization of the body “healthy” microbes can save people from many diseases like infections and diseases of metabolism. However, still do not fully understand how these bacterial communities arranged as to extract them from the human body intact is almost impossible.

Steven Wilbert (Wilbert Steven) from the foresight Institute and his colleagues have reconstructed the structure of the community that inhabits the human language — one of the most easily accessible mucous membranes. They asked 21 volunteers aged 18 to 70 years of collecting scrapings from their own language. After that, samples were immediately fixed with ethanol — this allows the bacterial biofilm does not disintegrate in the liquid.

Using the data of the project “the human Microbiome”, the authors have identified the 17 most commonly occurring in the mouth of the genera of bacteria. For each of them, they have developed a probe for hybridization of specific nucleic acid fluorescent dye. The researchers treated samples recorded 17 probes, and then tried to reconstruct the three-dimensional picture of the community.

The authors found in the scrapings three types of bacteria: free-floating, attached to the epithelium and forming consortia is a complex structure of many bacterial layers. While free or associated with the epithelium of the bacteria belonged mainly to one of three genera — Rothia, Veillonella or Actinomyces — in the composition of the consortia met at the same time different clans. Moreover, they were distributed unevenly on the film and formed clusters with a smooth edge — the further attention of the researchers drew on them.

They found that in the center of each of the consortium are epithelial cells covered with bacterial films from all sides. Such structures were found in all samples. In the majority of samples met three basic types of bacteria: Actinomyces, Rothia and Streptococcus. The first often adheres to the epithelial “stem”, the second, on the contrary, was more frequently found in the outer layers, and the third formed the “rays” penetrating the whole structure through and through.

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