American researchers have found that Botox injections is accompanied by a significant antidepressant effect — and regardless of the place of administration of the drug and the indications for its use. To do this, they analyzed the manifestation of side effects in more than 45 thousand of patients who were administered Botox in cosmetic and in medical purposes. While the exact mechanism of manifestation of this effect is unclear: the authors of the article in Scientific Reports suggest the effects of Botox in high doses on the Central nervous system, and alleviate certain symptoms of depression.
The main active ingredients of Botox are included in the group of botulinum toxins — neurotoxins protein nature, which block the signal transmission between neurons and muscle tissue, making last stops (partially or fully) reduced. Botox was originally developed for the treatment of facial muscle spasms (or ticks), but in the last few years the drug is very popular in cosmetics: it is used to smooth wrinkles and to treat excessive perspiration.
In cosmetic Botox is often injected into the muscles covering glabella — the area of the skull between the eyebrows above the nose: the flattening of these muscles reduces the amount of visible facial wrinkles that appear, for example, when a person is frowning (angry or upset). The use of Botox in this case also leads to the curious third-party effects: some studies conducted in the last ten years, indicative of a slight antidepressant property of the drug.
As explanation of this effect, scientists offer a fairly simple mechanism: the wrinkles that appear due to the manifestation of negative emotions, leads to the so-called facial feedback, according to which the man who does not Express negative emotions, sometimes they are feeling. This hypothesis, however, is speculative: for example, conducted last year, a meta-analysis indicated that the smile on her mood affects weak.
Thus the antidepressant effects of Botox still remains, and in the case that the hypothesis of facial feedback is eliminated, he needs to find another explanation. For this Macouns Tigran (Tigran Makunts) from the University of California at San Diego and his colleagues decided to test whether antidepressant properties of Botox depend on the injection site.
Scientists analyzed data about the side effects of more than 45 thousand of patients who were injected with Botox cosmetic purposes for the treatment of muscle spasms (in addition to the tick readings were also excessive salivation and pain in the neck), as well as to treat, for example, urinary incontinence. Participants, depending on the indication for use of Botox, picked up the control group — with the same evidence but a different treatment.
The analysis showed that the participants who were injected with Botox, depression and depressive symptoms diagnosed on 40-88 percent less than control groups, and this effect did not depend on the injection site: depression and its symptoms are rarely met those people who Botox injected in cosmetic purposes, and those who had been in therapy for muscle spasms and pain. In the treated group increased salivation and urinary incontinence effect, however, is not found in the first case — because of the small sample, and secondly, the difference is simply insignificant (although in that and in other case, depressive symptoms with the use of Botox was, let and insignificant, but still below).
Since the antidepressant effect of Botox remains regardless of the place of administration, the facial feedback is in fact an unlikely explanation for its existence. Alternatively, the researchers propose several options. First, in large doses Botox can actually affect the Central nervous system: in this case it directly affects parts of the brain responsible for regulating mood. Second, the reduction of depressive symptoms can be ensured by the fact that Botox reduces muscle tension, which is also often associated with depression. Third, in some cases, Botox can act on the root cause of depression — chronic illness: clearing the symptoms last, the drug reduces symptoms and promotes affective disorder. However, to establish the exact causes, according to the authors, further research was needed.
As shown held in 2016, the study, in the case of urinary incontinence Botox injections to help you better than the traditionally used electrical stimulation of the sacral nerves.