Cosmological survey helped to find 139 new TRANS-Neptunian objects

Astronomers presented
catalog TRANS-Neptunian objects detected in the first four years
review DES (Dark Energy Survey). Though
these observations are held primarily for the purpose of receiving
the cosmological data, they are also useful to study loved ones
of astronomical objects. The list includes 316 of the bodies from which information about 139
published for the first time. The final catalogue will be submitted after completion
a six-year program DES, write the scientists in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series.

Astronomers refer to
the planets in the Solar system eight bodies, of which the farthest from the center
Neptune. At large distance from the star are the orbits of asteroids, comets and dwarf
the planets, including Pluto. If these bodies revolve around the Sun, but not
approach it closer than Neptune, they are called TRANS-Neptunian objects (TNO).
At the moment there are about three thousand.

The study of TNO important in
the context of the history of the Solar system because these bodies were formed in the early
stages and how dynamic and chemical terms has changed little over
elapsed time. In particular, detailed knowledge of their orbits will help to find out
the migration history of giant planets, which could significantly affect the terms
in the inner part of the Solar system, including on the occurrence of suitable
for the origin of life conditions on Earth.

There are special
program to search it, but they can be found accidentally. This requires
deep observations covering large areas of the sky, as these sources
weak. In particular, these criteria satisfy the DES survey, which was conducted from 2013 to 2019 on
four-meter telescope named Victor Blanco at the Observatory Cerro was Tololo in
Chile.

In the framework of DES, scientists have observed approximately five thousand square
degrees (about one-eighth area of the sky) to estimate the distribution of matter in the
The universe and rate of expansion of space. And, although DES is not optimized for search, probably obtained in the framework of the data fit
to locate such bodies, especially having a large orbital inclination,
since the main part of the site DES is away from the plane of the Ecliptic.

Scientists from collaborations DES summed up the interim results of search for TNO data
review, published a catalogue of 316 bodies found during the first four
years. Their release required the development of new methods of analysis, as in
the framework of DES, the same region is observed
irregularly and at long intervals of time, and special programs for
search it is usually made of the frame of each plot every few hours.

Originally, astronomers
has allocated 60 thousand frames received about seven billion sources, but
used made in different exposure times for allocation of only non-permanent
— there was 22 million. For them, the authors tried to find an orbit to
the basis of the multiple frames if the object is moved relative to the other
sources.

The result is
list of 400 candidates, each of which was observed at least for six
nights. For each of these objects, scientists have re-processed all available data.
In particular, they stacked the resulting images to amplify signals in those
places where it was expected the presence of the object, but it has not been allocated within the
primary processing.

After all the checks
left 316 TNO, of which 245 were discovered in DES data, and information on 139
first published in this work. Discovered body are at a distance
from 30 to 90 astronomical units from the Sun, and the final catalog it according
DES, which
will be made on the basis of all collected six years of data will be
to contain about 500 features.

The authors also note a number
benefits received directory. First, DES is observing in several spectral filters both in
optical and near-infrared range, which allows you to get more
information about the objects. Even coverage allows
to highlight body regardless of the parameters of their trajectories, while
other methods can give preference to specific combinations of orbital
elements. This will simplify the comparison of the catalog with the models of the TNO populations.

Previously, Astronomers have found a record of the distant TRANS-Neptunian object, discovered comparable to Pluto in size nice and summed up the results of the choice of the name for one of these bodies — now it’s called after the Chinese God of water Gunguna.

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