Astronomers have discovered the most distant to date, blazar, which is extremely bright in radio and x-ray active galactic nucleus. This active galaxy existed at a time when the Universe was less than one billion years, similar discoveries give scientists the most accurate assessment in the early Universe the density of active galactic nuclei, which is a kind of “incubators” for supermassive black holes. Article published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
Blazey represent bright in the radio active nuclei of distant galaxies. The relativistic jet of plasma (jets), ejected from their nuclei, for which the responsible Central supermassive black hole is directed at a low angle (20 degrees) to the line of sight of the observer, in contrast to normal quasars, and not to be overshadowed by clouds of dust, causing the brightness of the blazar increases, making such facilities easier to find for large values of red shift. This allows you to impose restrictions on the parameters of primary black holes and the modes of accretion of matter onto them in the early Universe. Currently, the values of the cosmological red shift z = 5-5,5 there are only seven blazers, of which the most distant are at z = 5,47. If we talk about large values of red shift, for them to date, was discovered only nine active galactic nuclei, but none of them was classified as a blazar.
A team of astronomers led by Beradette Silvia (Silvia Belladitta) reported the discovery of the most distant to date of the blazar PSO J0309+27 that existed at the time when the Universe was less than one billion years. The discovery was made during analysis of the survey data NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey) Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System), further behind the object has been observed by ground telescope LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) and space-based gamma-ray Observatory “swift”.
Newly discovered blazar has the brightest radio and x-ray active galactic nucleus at z>6. It is expected that at its center is a supermassive black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses, intensely absorbing substance. Astronomers were also able to evaluate bulk density and blazers of active galactic nuclei at z∼6, consistent with the predictions of cosmological models, and figure out that the radio bright active galaxies in the early Universe could be 10 to 30 percent of the population of all active galaxies.
Further observations should lead to the discovery of more than 15-20 blazers at z>6, allowing more accurate assessment of volume density of active galactic cores that operate as “incubators” of supermassive black holes at the end of the era of reionizatsii.
Earlier we talked about how astronomers first were able to identify the source of the cosmic high-energy neutrinos, which turned out to be a distant blazar.