The volcanoes called volcanoes, the eruption of which is strong enough to change the landscape and cause global climate change, causing the effect of volcanic winter — cold planetary climate due to pollution of the atmosphere by volcanic emissions. Such a catastrophic super eruption, estimated at 8 points or above on a scale of volcanic activity repeatedly occurred throughout Earth’s history. Today
about 20 SUPERVOLCANO, the eruption of which can reach such power. Yellowstone
Caldera, located in North-West Wyoming in the US, having the dimensions
approximately 55 by 72 kilometers, is one of the most famous SUPERVOLCANO.
The existence of the Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO is associated with
located in this area hot spot — a long-lived thermal anomaly,
located in the Earth’s mantle. When the movement of lithospheric plates over these hot
points there is a consistent “burn” of the earth’s crust, leading to
eruptions and the formation of chains of volcanoes, if a hot spot located beneath a continent
or volcanic Islands and mountain chains in the oceans. There are several hypotheses explaining the nature
hot spots, one of which binds them with mantle plumes — much
heated mantle flows, moving from the deep layers of the mantle to the earth’s
The Yellowstone hot spot, there are already many millions of years and
it was formed
a chain of volcanic calderas. As you shift the North American plate at a rate of about two centimeters per year, the remnants of ancient calderas gradually shifted in the southwestern direction.
The last major eruption of the Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO that formed
the Caldera and tuff deposits of the Lava Creek, occurred around
630000 years ago. Unfortunately, today it is impossible to accurately predict
when the next eruption will occur, scientists can only estimate its probability.
Thomas Knott (Thomas R. Knott) from the British Leicester
University with colleagues from the British geological survey and the California
University in Santa Cruz found that volcanic rocks, the origin of which had been associated with many relatively small eruptions
the incident on the way the Yellowstone hot spot, in fact, was formed in
the result of two powerful superiority, each of which destroyed all life on the vast territory that is today occupied by the States of Idaho and Nevada.
To such conclusion scientists came after a thorough
the large amount of data, paleomagnetic, radioisotopic data
of Dating, chemical composition of minerals collected from the area in the tens of thousands
Both eruptions occurred near the volcanic
field twin falls. Force of the first eruption, which
happened about 8.9 million years ago, scientists estimated 8.6 points on the scale volcanic activity (more than 1,700 cubic meters of volcanic
of emissions). The second eruption occurred approximately 8.7 million years ago and
it turned out to be 30 percent stronger than the eruption of the Huckleberry ridge, before considered the most
devastating on the path of the Yellowstone hot spot. Assessment
scientists 2800 cubic kilometers of emissions of this super eruption has covered an area of 23 thousand square kilometers. For comparison, the eruption of Tambora volcano in 1815 were released into the atmosphere from 150 to 180 cubic kilometers of volcanic materials. This has led to a decrease in the average global temperature by 0.4-0.7 degree, which led to the so-called “year without summer”.
The number of major eruptions with emissions of more than 450 cubic kilometers incident to the movement of the Yellowstone hot spot over the 12 million years, including two newly-opened rose to eleven. The Miocene epoch,
which began approximately 23 million years ago and ended 5.3 million years ago, accounted for the majority
major eruptions, and the researchers estimated that on average a super eruption
was happening every 500 thousand years. However
over the last 3 million years, large-scale volcanic event was only two and scientists have come to the conclusion that such a reduction in the number of superiority may be a sign of weakening activity in the area of the hot spot.
With the new data assessment frequency
frequency of eruptions of the Yellowstone SUPERVOLCANO could reach 1.5 million
years, as explained by Thomas a Knott in a press release posted on the website of the Geological society of America. This means that the next major eruption is possible to expect not earlier than 900 years. However, these are only estimates and continuous
monitoring volcanic and seismic activity in this area is still needed.
Even a small probability of an eruption of the Yellowstone
SUPERVOLCANO is a cause of concern because, as found by American scientists, the eruption is able to fill with ashes the whole territory
USA and lead to catastrophic global climate change on Earth.