Glycerol and propylene glycol included in the composition of fluids for electronic cigarettes cause changes in the subgingival microbiome. Bacteria become more active to form a biofilm, which in turn determines the inflammatory process. The authors of a study published in Science Advances, found in clinically healthy people, the signs of severe periodontitis. The study shows that the damage to the microbiome of the oral cavity during the use of electronic delivery systems nicotine is comparable to the harm when Smoking ordinary cigarettes.
According to data VTSIOM two percent ofns use alternative methods of nicotine consumption such as e-cigarettes (wapi) and the heating system of tobacco. Half of these people use electronic devices deliver nicotine from less harmful to health compared to conventional tobacco, and a quarter use these gadgets as a step towards quitting Smoking. Who notes a decrease in the number of smokers of conventional cigarettes worldwide, with users of electronic cigarettes observed a reverse trend. The who report says that in recent years, Teens begin their journey of a smoker with electronic cigarette, therefore in many countries is the question of restricting the advertisement of such devices. The who does not recommend using VAPI to quit Smoking, but admits them less harmful to man than conventional cigarettes, so individually it is possible to use electronic delivery systems nicotine to gradually quit Smoking. Effects of electronic cigarettes on the respiratory system the subject of many studies (e.g., this, which refers to the inflammation of the Airways in people with asthma after Smoking electronic cigarettes), but the oral cavity has received little attention, despite its initial contact with aerosol from the devices.
Researchers from the Department of Periodontology Ohio State University under the direction of Sukrita of Hensen (Sukirth M. Ganesan) studied the impact of e-cigarettes on periodontal ecosystem of symbiotic bacteria of the oral cavity in people with different experience of Smoking. The persons who permanently or periodically use e-cigarettes, has found a surprising uniformity microbiotics composition of the subgingival ecosystem of front teeth. Mostly, the microbiome was represented by 203 species of bacteria belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Capnocytophaga, Filifactor, Fusobacterium, Treponema, Tannerella, Prevotella, Selenomonas and Streptococcus. It is assumed that these species have a decisive influence on the sharing of information and resources in the ecosystem (there are about 340 species). However, users of electronic cigarettes showed a significant correlation between the level of Pro-inflammatory cytokines and active genes responsible for stress response and transport of heavy metals.
The researchers compared the microbiomes of 20 people Smoking only electronic cigarettes, and 25 healthy non-smokers (those who smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and none in past year) people and 25 smokers (those who smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for the last 5 years and had no previous history of the use of electronic cigarettes). Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between smokers, consumers of electronic cigarettes and the control group on the basis of both functional and taxonomic profiles of the microbiome. In the genetic material of microbiomes e-cigarette users found the more active the genes for virulence factors such as cell wall and capsule polysaccharides and antibiotic resistance, stress response, flagellar motility and the production of toxins (P < 0.05). Compared with the microbiomes of healthy and people Smoking cigarettes consumers electronic cigarettes detected more (P < 0.05) pathogenic bacteria. 96% of species of the microbiome electronic cigarette users showed a significantly higher number compared to the two other groups. Strong core microbiome, which was significantly different from that in smokers and non-smokers allowed to assume that the aerosol electronic cigarette affects the microbiome of the oral cavity differently than cigarette smoke.
The authors of the study found e-cigarette users a more vivid picture of mucosal injury. Despite the fact that smokers were observed inflammation, it was implemented in other immunological mediators due to the difference in the composition of the microbiome. Consumers of electronic cigarettes showed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α and INF-ɣ and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 compared to never smokers, while smokers showed higher levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and INF-ɣ and lower levels of IL-10 compared to never smokers (P < 0.05). Thus, under the impact of e-cigarettes had higher inflammatory burden, mediated by the microbiome. This is due to the fact that within 24 hours after use of electronic cigarette biofilm generated by the microbiome has been constantly increasing due to the presence of aerosol of glycerol and/or propylene glycol which are the food for bacteria. Glycerol is an important precursor for lipid synthesis and for the formation of lipoteichoic acids in many gram-positive bacteria. Well known is the role of glycerol in the intracellular growth of pathogenic bacteria. Biofilms are responsible for the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease, causing in healthy people who use electronic cigarettes, you experience symptoms of these diseases.