Global climate change, overpopulation, deforestation, intensification of agriculture and expansion of road networks called the main factors leading to large-scale spread of zoonotic diseases worldwide. According to a study published in the journal Environmental Science and Policy, the greatest epidemiological risk coming from the area of tropical forests, which systematically degraded due to anthropogenic activities and are unable to implement the ecosystem regulation services of zoonoses.
Zoonoses are called infectious diseases, pathogens of which are transmitted to humans from animals. In addition COVID-19 in recent years, people have faced a number of outbreaks of zoonotic diseases — avian and swine flu, with fever West Nile virus zika, middle East respiratory syndrome and fever rift valley. Not less than 65 percent of all pathogens discovered since 1980, experts have identified as a zoonotic viral infection.
Despite the fact that people and their livestock accounts for about 96 percent of the world biomass of mammals, 91 percent of zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans from wild animals. This demonstrates the need of accounting for ecosystem services that provide regulation of the outbreaks in the wild. Ignoring the role of ecosystems in containing epidemics environmentalists call one of the main reasons for the wide spread of new infections that appear, despite the widespread development of medicine and improvement of working conditions.
Scientists led by Mark Everard (Mark Everard) from the University of the West of England described the interactions between society and environment in the context of zoonotic diseases on the structure of the DPSIR, which implies the definition of the drivers, the points of greatest pressure of government measures, impacts on ecosystems and their response to it.