Astronomers discovered the atmosphere of Venus atmospheric structure — a giant wall of acid clouds with a length of 7.5 thousand kilometers. About the opening described in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.
Venus is similar to Earth in size and mass. However, the conditions on the surface are very different from conditions on the planet — in particular, she is surrounded by a very dense gas shell, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and its average temperature is about 462 degrees Celsius. In addition, the atmosphere of Venus rotates much faster than the planet itself (this phenomenon is called superstacja) — while the period of rotation of a celestial body is 243 days, its gas envelope makes a full rotation in just four days, which on Venus the winds blow at speeds up to 500 kilometers per hour.
Previously, scientists have found an unusual structure in the atmosphere of Venus. So, one of the most famous in the form of the letter Y, the astronomers noticed in the 1960-ies using ground-based UV telescopes, and in 2015, they found the so-called “smile” — education in the form of an arc with a length of 10 thousand kilometers. Nevertheless, all these structures were present in the upper layers of the gas envelope of the planet, but now scientists managed to see the anomaly, which is closer to the surface.
Javier Peralta (Peralta Javier) from the Institute of space and Astronautical science of JAXA, along with colleagues analyzed images taken by the probe “akatsuki” in 2016. Image of the lower layers of clouds, obtained using the infrared cameras showed the formation, which was similar to the atmospheric wave on a planetary scale. It stretches from the middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere to the southern mid-latitudes (30 degrees North latitude to 40 degrees South) and is situated at a height of 47.5 and 56.5 kilometers.
After the discovery of the structure, the researchers analyzed other images of the atmosphere Verena, including pictures of the Australian telescope AAT, which showed that it exists at least since 1983. It moves at a speed of about 328 kilometers per hour, making a complete revolution around the planet in about five days. In this case, what education is — the scientists can not yet say, despite the attempts to create computer simulations. According to one version, the wall of sulphuric acid could be formed due to Kelvin waves atmospheric gravity waves that arise in the interaction of the gas shell with relief. As discovered education, they extend in the same direction, and can also interact with other atmospheric waves, including waves of rossbi, generating instability, is able to transmit a pulse of superrotation to the equator.
“Akatsuki” is the only automatic interplanetary station, which today explores Venus. Because of her, scientists were able to create an animation of the movement of the clouds, the night hemisphere of the planet, to study its superrotation, as well as to obtain high-quality images.