American biotechnology company Moderna in conjunction with the National Institute of Allergy and infectious diseases (NIAID) the U.S. began the first phase of clinical trials of RNA-vaccines COVID-2019, reported on the website of the National institutes of health. However, to begin to widely apply this or any other vaccine against the new coronavirus does not work until next year.
When 11 January 2020, the Chinese authorities laid out in open access the nucleotide sequence of the genome of the new coronavirus, different groups of virologists and immunologists began to look for ways to create a vaccine based on this information. 13 Jan Moderna and the National institutes of health said sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA) SARS-CoV-2, which encodes the S-protein.
This protein is located on the surface of viral particles, ensuring its attachment to the cage of the victim, and penetration of her. If you enter the corresponding mRNA in the human body, the cells will start to produce S-protein, it will detect the immune system cells and trigger the immune response. As a result, when the body will get a real coronavirus, it will be to cope.
February 7 was the first experimental batch of vaccine. They are not attenuated SARS-CoV-2, and even fragments of viral particles, the active part consists only of mRNA for S-protein of the virus that is encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles. There are three different concentrations of mRNA: 25, 100 and 250 micrograms.
One of the goals of a clinical study of a vaccine is to determine which of these concentrations optimal. However, in the first phase of the priority tasks is to find out whether it is safe and able to induce a sufficient immune response (this will determine the level of immunoglobulin G after a certain period of time after vaccination).
On March 4 testing of the vaccine approved the FDA food and drug administration. The day before, began the selection of 45 volunteers — healthy men and women aged 18-55 years. They plan to introduce 0.5 ml of the drug with one of the three specified concentrations of mRNA in the deltoid muscle twice at intervals of 28 days. For health status of subjects will be monitored throughout the year since the start of the study.
March 16 clinical trials started in Seattle at the research Institute of Kaiser Permanente, and the first dose of vaccine, the subjects have already received. The first preliminary results are expected in three months, and to complete the data collection in this phase is scheduled for June 2021. If the vaccine is found safe and able to induce an immune response, followed by a second stage of clinical trials, which will involve probably hundreds of subjects.
In addition to mRNA-vaccines can develop a drug and DNA-based. This now deals with the group of Dan Baruch (Dan Barouch) from Medical centre Beth-Israel in Boston. Baruch is one of the leaders in the development of antiviral vaccines, that he and his colleagues created the most promising vaccine against HIV. However, the proposed test a potential vaccine against the new coronavirus in humans is not available.
About the main events associated with the pandemic COVID-2019, and studies the offending virus, read the blog “Chronicles of Coronavirus”.