The brain of Australopithecus was structurally similar to the monkey, but develop as long as human — to such conclusion anthropologists, making computer models of the two skulls of young avarskikh of Australopithecus. This conclusion casts doubt on the prevailing hypothesis that the brain began to grow longer only after increased in size — not to create the cub and the mother of problems in childbirth. Apparently, a long development appeared regardless of the size and did not affect other parts of the body of Australopithecus. Work published in the journal Science Advances.
According to a widespread hypothesis, in the descent of man played an important role neoteny is the preservation of childhood traits in adult individuals. An example might be, for example, the shape of the skull, which in the adult is much stronger recalls baby monkeys, than adult animals. With neotenous often associated and extended development: it is known that the brain of a person develops longer than in monkeys. Therefore, our calves longer dependent on parents, and the formation of the brain largely depends on your environment than our distant ancestors.
In addition, the human brain is structurally different from the monkeys. For example, we have a stronger forward lunate sulcus, from which the occipital portion of the brain becomes flatter. Scientists attribute this reformation with the emergence of more complex behaviours, for example, production of tools and verbal communication. However, it is still unclear when these began the process of restructuring and renewal of growth: the first members of the species Homo or before, say, the Australopithecines? The problem is that the lunate sulcus does not leave clear prints on the skull, and the skull of Australopithecus, which have been investigated were strongly deformed, which prevented to estimate the location of fractions and age of individuals.