The TOP500 project has published a new list of the 500 most powerful supercomputers, which was first headed by a computer processor on the ARM architecture. Fugaku Japanese supercomputer has a capacity of 415.5 of petaflops, which is 2.8 times higher than the previous leader Summit, which is now in second place. The new computer also has a high, though not record (ninth place in the list), energy efficiency: it is 14,665 gigaflops per watt of power consumed.
The vast majority of supercomputers from the TOP500 list, as well as conventional computers and servers, running on processors with the x86 (to be more precise, x86-64). However, in recent years many developers and manufacturers have started to examine the ARM architecture, which is usually used in mobile devices as a complete replacement for the x86. In consumer devices the main advantage is that such chips are more energy-efficient. But ARM there are significant differences in principle of operation. The main one is that ARM uses a short set of simple instructions (RISC), while x86 used full set (CISC). The main advantage of RISC is that with this approach, how the calculations are performed is largely set in software, not hardware level. More information can be read here.
Fujitsu plans to create a record of computer Fugaku on the ARM architecture became known in 2016. At the end of 2019, the engineers began to assemble a computer at the Kobe Institute, the Institute of physical and chemical research (RIKEN), and in the middle of may, last stand and finished the installation so the TOP500 could include a new supercomputer in your list, which is published semiannually in December and June.
Fugaku consists of almost 159 thousand compute nodes, each of which used ARM-core chip Fujitsu A64FX. It has 48 main cores and four more for the operating system. Used for data storage SSD capacity of 1.6 terabytes for every 16 nodes. Each node uses 32 Gigabyte RAM format HBM2 at a speed of 1025 Gigabit per second. The supercomputer runs on the operating system Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 c hybrid core consisting of a simultaneous Linux kernels and McKernel.