South African women found vaginal bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus, which can become a new probiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Experiments in vitro showed that some of the discovered strains of lactobacilli have significant advantages in comparison with strains comprising the existing probiotic preparations. The authors of an article published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, noted that the stronger lactobacilli reduce the pH of the vaginal secretion, which protects the vagina from bacterial vaginosis and STI’s and actively inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
In bacterial vaginosis, which is the most common infectious disease of the female reproductive system, the number of lactobacilli decreases and antimicrobial protection of the vagina weakens. Inhabit mucous membranes of anaerobic bacteria which produce volatile fatty acids and amines, giving abundant vaginal discharge unpleasant “fish” smell. Pathogens create a biofilm where the cells of the normal microflora are unable to re-colonize the mucosa. A major role in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis give Gardnerella vaginalis because of its greatest contribution in biofilm formation and synthesis of vaginalia — toxin that helps the bacteria attach to the epithelial cell of the vagina and causing its lysis.
Bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus represent up to 95 percent of the total microbiome of a woman’s vagina, which protects the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. With the development of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide lactobacilli maintain the acidic pH (at 3.5 and 4.6) on the mucosa of the vaginal walls, thereby inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
The study authors, led by Anna-Ursula Happel (Anna-Ursula Happel) from the Institute of infectious diseases and molecular medicine University of Cape town compared the lactobacilli from the vaginal microflora 26 young South African women with a lactobacilli probiotic drugs used in bacterial vaginosis and with the reference strains. The study strains were compared by the ability of lowering the pH of the colony, the production of lactate and hydrogen peroxide and of ability to inhibit the growth of G. vaginalis and Prevotella bivia provocateur inflammatory complications vaginosis. It turned out that vaginal strains of different species of Lactobacillus better protective function than their related probiotic strains. So, several vaginal strains maintained the pH at 3.7, while the medicinal strains are unable to show the result below 4.2.