# Modern men and women do not fit into the geometry of the “Vitruvian man” da Vinci

Mathematics counted the proportions that Leonardo da Vinci used in the “Vitruvian man”, for modern men and women. In General, the proportions close, but the hands and feet of people of the XXI century turned out to be longer than the “Vitruvian man.” In the end, modern man could not enter neither in a circle nor a square. Article published in the journal Journal of the American Medical Association.

In the third book of his treatise on architecture antique architect Marcus Vitruvius Pollio described the ideal proportions of the human body. Human height, for example, must be equal to the span of his arms, the length of the ears — thirds of the length of the face, the navel is the center of the perfect composition. After 15 centuries, Leonardo da Vinci self – measured proportions of the male body, and drew the “Vitruvian man.”

In the twenty-first century scientists of the United States decided to use some modern technology to a large sample to measure the standard proportions of modern men and women and draw a new “Vitruvian man.” A group of mathematicians led by Diana Thomas (Diana Thomas) from the United States Military Academy used a 3D scan of recruits of the air force (63623 men and 1385 women). The researchers took seven the proportions (size relationships of body parts to growth), who used Leonardo da Vinci: head height, arm span, height, groin, shoulder width, distance from the breast to the crown, the height of the knee and the length of the thigh.

According to average proportions the artist painted the modern man and woman in the style of “Vitruvian man”: a posture with outstretched arms and legs apart inscribed in a circle, and with divorced hands and her legs shut in the square.

Most of the proportions of modern men and women have deviated from the standards of Leonardo da Vinci, no more than 10 percent. Has increased markedly since then only the hands (20 percent) and hips (29 per cent). In the end, no hands, no legs do not fit in the circle and the square; the navel ceased to be the center of the circle, and the groin — square.

In conclusion, the authors remind us that “Vitruvian man” reflects the ideal rather than the average of proportion — Leonardo da Vinci could use the size of one or more persons and to round obtained values to integers. However, the average proportions of modern man are close to those that were stated in notes by the famous Italian.

The work of Leonardo da Vinci often studied from the point of view of various Sciences. So, the British ophthalmologist at the paintings and sculptures of the artist was diagnosed with his strabismus, and physics studied optical effects in the painting “Savior of the world” and came to the conclusion that in the hand of the Savior of the thin-walled sphere, not a solid ball.