French physicists have demonstrated anionwu statistics in the collision of quasiparticles in two-dimensional electron gas using tiny colliders. To do this, the researchers examined the correlation of current in quantum point contact, which emitted two streams of quasiparticles. The presented experiment is the first direct evidence of the existence of anionov. Work published in the journal Science.
In familiar three-dimensional space of all elementary interactions can be divided into two categories, depending on changes in the properties of the system under permutation of two particles: boson and fermion. While the wave function of the bosonic system does not change its phase with two particles, the wave function of the fermion system changes the phase by π. The dynamics of the phases leads to the fact that bosons are grouped into the same state, and fermions, on the contrary, try to resprouts. For example, the effect of Hong-Y-Mandel, which is important for creation of the quantum computer and communication networks with quantum cryptography, based on bosonic properties of light to be grouped, and the principle of Pauli exclusion, on the contrary, is based on anthroprogenic fermionic properties of electrons.
In two-dimensional systems the phase change may differ from 0 and π, which mean the existence of another type of particles called anionami, which in turn possess fractional statistics. Anyone are generalizations of the concepts of fermion and boson, and are of great interest for topological States of matter. Unfortunately, to detect the fractional statistics of anionov very difficult, and until now were presented only indirect evidence.
A group of physicists from France under the leadership of Phoebe Gwendal (Gwendal Fève) conducted a collision of quasi-particles, which, presumably, are anionami, and measure their statistics. The experiment showed the fractional statistics, which is a direct confirmation of the fact that the studied quasiparticles — anyone.