NASA has disconnected 17 years studying the Sun, the Orbiter SORCE

NASA announced the official
the termination of the mission Orbiter SORCE, who for 17 years has studied the Sun. Launched on 25 January 2003, the tool has set a new standard luminosity of the star and was off 25
February 2020. More than 40 years of continuous observations of full light
The sun will continue posted in 2017 to the International space station
receiver TSIS-1, and TSIS-2, which will run as an independent
spacecraft in 2023, reported on the Agency’s website.

The sun is the main source of energy on Earth, it
provides the ability to cycle many substances and creates suitable for
life habitat. Key energy characteristics of the Sun is
full luminosity (total solar irradiance, TSI) — the total at all wavelengths the radiation power of the stars in
the unit area surface at the upper atmosphere of the Earth. This value is in
defines the climate, temperature, chemical reactions in the atmosphere and a
other processes on the planet.

A detailed study of TSI allows to answer two important scientific questions: how
permanent full luminosity of the Sun and there is a tendency to change on
the scale of centuries. The first challenge relates to the contribution of the globes in the climate change on the planet
as variability on the scale of decades luminosity can be in part
it’s a responsibility. Also, scientists over the last decades can not
come to a final conclusion about the presence and direction of long term trend
radiation power of the Sun. Clarity to this situation will help to create much
more reliable models of the future of the Solar system and the Earth’s climate, in
particular.

One of the established to study the luminosity of the Sun machines is called SORCE — SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment, experiment on solar
radiation and climate. It was measured as the full luminosity of the star (TSI) and spectral (spectral solar
irradiance, SSI), that is in a specific range of wavelengths. At TSI have a small but
the measured effect of the presence of spots and flares on the visible hemisphere of the Sun. In General
the luminosity of the Sun varies a little, but in some spectral ranges may
experience significant variations. For example, ultraviolet and x-ray
the luminosity increase manifold during flares on the star.

Completed the mission in February SORCE made a significant contribution to both
the research method of the Sun. In terms of overall luminosity SORCE was tenfold
more precisely, previous instruments, and by its results the Sun was slightly
less bright — the average radiation power amounted to 4.6 watts per square
meter less. In terms of the spectral luminosity SORCE was the first apparatus,
which held long-term and continuous measurements in the range from 1 to 2400
nanometers.

For a long time the standard value of the total luminosity of the Sun
it was considered 1365,4 W/m2. However, in 2011 data SORCE enough to determine
a new value level 1360,8 W/m2, or about a third of a percent
less. Despite the relatively small difference, it’s many times
exceeded errors even older measurements led to a lengthy discussion about
true value. The development of additional methods for the calibration confirmed
right SORCE and the fallacy of all previous measurements, which were
systematically overstated.

Originally SORCE was designed to work for five years, but 17-year-old
lifespan allowed him to get measure two solar activity minimum,
which occur every 11-year cycle. The batteries of the device began
to collapse after eight years of work that have limited the capacity of the aircraft
tools. Engineers decided to only go to work during the day and
to turn off instrumentation when the satellite is in the shadow of the Earth.

The next scheduled American machine Glory was
lost when the launch in 2011. Successfully started observations of the Sun TCTE only
in 2013. If SORCE completely out of order earlier, then a continuous number of studies
the luminosity of the star could be broken. Today light is also exploring the receiver TSIS-1
aboard the ISS, which is like a SORCE
measures the total and spectral luminosity, but with an even higher precision. In
2023 in a private space on the satellite will travel TSIS-1, equipped with such
same set of tools.

Previously, the neural network helped to determine the magnetic field on the far side of the Sun, in the Sun for the first time saw the forced magnetic reconnection was obtained the most detailed images of the photosphere of the star.

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