On ceremonial vessels of the Incas found white of Europe

American
scientists
analyzed the isotopic composition
white lead on ritual vessels
Inca
the colonial period.
It turned out that part of the vessel was
painted white, brought from
Europe and
part – whitewash made from
lead rocks of the Andean mountains. Proposed
the method of analysis will help
in the future
to define more precisely
the origin and age of these
vessels.
Results
research published
in the journal Heritage
Science.

Kero
(qiru,
qero)
– wooden
ceremonial
the vessel Andean
Indians.
These vessels played
an important role in social and religious
rituals, for example,
it is known that
master
made a pair of identical Kero,
which
have been used for ceremonial
toast. Tradition
manufacturing
Kero was born
in the period 100-600 ad,
reached its
flourishing in the period of Empire
1438-1533 the Inca in years, but
preserved
after the conquest of the Incas by the Spanish in 1532
year.

Though
that Kero
study
more than a hundred years, information about them is enough
scattered and sometimes insufficient:
for example,
quite a bit
is known about the craftsmen who created
these vessels,
about the device and location of their
workshops. Age
Kero is mainly determined by the pattern

considered
master pre-colonial period (up to
1532)
gave
preferences geometric
patterns,
and
in the colonial period more popular
steel images of people
and animals.

For
more
a precise definition
age
also
radiocarbon analysis
wooden
material
however, this
the method has
a large error due to
the fact that the wizard could use
his work trees different
age.

Allison
N. Curley (Curley Allison N.) and her colleagues from the
spent
isotopic lead
white,
which
used for coloring of Kero.
Such white
consist
of the two carbonates of lead

cerrusite PbCO3
and hydrocerussite (PbCO3)2(OH)2,
to make
their inky,
apparently, the learned
the Spanish –
on the Kero pre-colonial period
to detect lead
white
not yet succeeded.
Scientists
tried
to trace the origin of lead pigment, for
what
measured
the content of the four
stable
isotopes
lead
– 204Pb
206Pb,
207Pb
and
208Pb.
All
these isotopes are in natural
minerals of lead, however, the ratio
between them for different species
and even different deposits of the same breed
may vary. The fact that the isotopes
206Pb,
207Pb
and
208Pb
are
radiogenic,
that is, are formed as a result of the collapse
radioactive
elements, respectively
238U,
235U
and 232Th.
The contents
each isotope depends
from the origin of a specific field
lead breed.

Just
the work was
analyzed 20 of the vessels of
National
Museum
American Indians,
American
Museum
natural history, the Brooklyn
Museum
The Metropolitan Museum Of Art,
and also from
private collections.
With
the surface of each vessel took
a small particle of the pigment, ground from
5 to 5 nanograms. Samples of pigment
dissolved in nitric acid, then
the solutions were diluted to a concentration of
lead
about 25
ppb (25
ppb). For
content analysis of the isotopes used
a method of mass spectrometry
inductively coupled plasma
(MC-ICP-MS).
Turned out
that all studied vessels
can be divided into three groups.
The first group
the authors took three
vessel
with the lowest
attitude
content
isotope 206Pb
to the content
isotope 204Pb,
the second five
vessels,
which isotope 206Pb
it
higher than the first, and isotope 207Pb

below.
Third
the large group included
twelve
vessel, white
on which differed
the lowest isotope 204Pb
and
a high content of isotopes 206Pb
and

208Pb.

The compositions of the pigments on
Kero first and
the second group was similar to the composition of lead
white, who
was used in European painting XVII–XIX centuries.
The third group
composition different from the first two
– more
than the first and the second group differed
between them. Isotope
composition of pigments on Kero this group
was very close to the composition
some
lead
minerals from the region of the Central Andes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.