Astronomers using the telescope VLT has found that near to the Ground a brown dwarf Luhman 16A of various cloud layers, similar to those seen on Jupiter. His companion cloud bands, but there is a separate uneven clouds. Similar studies are needed for understanding processes of formation of clouds on the gas giants, and the evolution of brown dwarfs. Article published in the journal the Astrophysical Journal.
Brown dwarfs are a unique class of objects, parameters which are intermediate between the parameters of exoplanets-giants and stars. Mass brown dwarfs lies in the range from 13 to 80 Jupiter masses, which is insufficient to maintain a thermonuclear “burning” of hydrogen, but enough for fusion reactions involving the nuclei of deuterium and lithium. The temperature of the external layers of dwarfs is not especially large, they are not above two thousand degrees Kelvin.
After the birth of brown dwarfs is gradually cooled by radiation, changing its spectral type and undergoing chemical evolution. It is considered that the change of its atmosphere, becoming from a lot of dust or cloud (where the cloud mainly consists of corundum, iron, and silicate) are relatively clean, which then form clouds of other condensed substances such as chrome, MnS, Na2S, ZnS and KCl. This theory is confirmed by photometric and spectroscopic studies of brown dwarfs. Understanding the morphology of clouds on brown dwarfs is important because they affect the observations and are directly related to radiative, advective , and chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere dwarfs. Such studies are interesting for the understanding of the processes of formation and migration of clouds on the gas giants.
A team of astronomers led by Maxwell Millar-Blanchere (Maxwell Millar-Blanchaer) from the California Institute of technology published the results of polarimetric observations in the near infrared range for the system, Luhman 16, held in April 2018 with the instrument NaCo (NAOS-CONICA)mounted on one of the complex of telescopes VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. The system consists of two brown dwarfs of L and T-type, which have a weight of 33.5 and 28.6 Jupiter masses and a temperature of the outer layers equal to approximately one thousand degrees Celsius. The distance to Luhman 16 is estimated only 6.51 light years, it is the third farthest neighbor of the Sun and the closest to us brown dwarfs.