Austrian scientists found that most of the portraits painted in profile space in front of the depicted character more than him. It concerns portraits by European artists, written in the XV–XX centuries: from 1831 portraits on 1395 distance from the head to the edge of the painting was more in the front than the back, and the same was observed concerning the body. The displacement profile of the Central composition became more pronounced with time: this means that the set originally cultural norms on portraiture over time has worn off, yielding to the influence of features of human perception, write scientists in Cognitive Science.
A big role in the visual arts plays a song that is used in the product: it affects the overall aesthetic that he wants to portray the artist, and from this aesthetic, in turn, depends on what you will do the work of the viewer. Of course, of composition there are certain rules: for example, research shows that people pay more attention to the items in an enclosed space (such as a picture) in the middle about a horizontal axis, and consider them to be more attractive.
The location of the object in the middle of the composition helps to achieve the desired aesthetically pleasing symmetry. Apparently, this is only for initially symmetric objects, but asymmetric on the vertical axis the objects the situation is different: due to their shape location in the middle of the composition still will not allow you to achieve total, absolute symmetry. In this case, nothing prevents the artist to opt out of the symmetry of the composition and to move the object from the center.
A similar dynamic can be observed in portrait-painting. If the person on the portrait is depicted strictly full face (like on the self portrait of Albrecht dürer), the composition is likely to be symmetrical, but at the turn of the body or the image in the profile (e.g., as in Vermeer) — probably not. In the latter case is particularly interesting choice of location of the person in the picture: unless you make it standing in a person’s profile in the center of the composition, then you need to leave more space either behind him or before him.
Here is the role of human perception. In particular, it is clear, for example, that what is in front of a man in his field of vision, it has much more sense than what is behind him. In fact, this should be reflected in the composition of asymmetrical portraits in profile, as that correlates well with the usual human characteristics of perception seems to be more attractive — at least for realistic portraiture. In other words, if the artist shifts the profile from the middle of his portrait, he must leave more space in front and not behind.
To test this regularity on a large number of data decided by scientists under the leadership of Helena Miton (Helena Miton) from Central European University in Vienna. They took 1831 portraits in profile, made 582 European artists of XV–XX centuries: sample collected site-WikiArt. All the studied portraits of one character and the pose does not imply interaction with other objects; furthermore, the sample excluded portraits of people in masks or, for example, with a cigarette in his mouth. The definition of “profile” got any portraits, which have depicted was seen only by one eye.
For each portrait, the scientists calculated the number of pixels from the extreme point of the head to the edge of the painting front and back and calculated it on the basis of p — ratio the probability that the character space will be greater than him (this is the number of pixels in the front divided by the sum of the number of pixels in front and behind).