Physicists have simulated a system of two quantum dots with single-electron transitions for the theoretical evaluation of the thermodynamic characteristics of Maxwell’s demon with information and the return action of the measurement. They demonstrated the possibility of converting heat into work through the information and got the curves of dependences of heat and power from the locking voltage and the degree of tunneling. Article published in the journal Physical Review B.
Maxwell put his famous thought experiment with the participation of Maxwell’s demon in 1867. He formulated it this way: a sealed vessel filled with molecules, separated by a partition with a door. This door is controlled by the demon — it measures the speed of molecules and selectively flows into one compartment of the fast molecules and the other slow, that ultimately will separate all molecules of the vessel into two parts relative to the average velocity of the original gas. In different compartments after separation of the particles will have different average velocities. The temperature depends on the average velocity of the particles, so the demon creates a temperature difference between the two parts of the vessel. The demon by their actions, have streamlined the molecules, and thereby reduce the entropy of the system, which at first glance contradicts the second law of thermodynamics.