Leather 16 species of demersal fish found in the Gulf of Mexico and Monterey Bay, was sorcerey. Experiments have shown that it represents less than 0.5 percent of the incident light with a wavelength of 480 nanometers. One of the types of reflectivity was a record low — only 0.044 per cent. As noted in an article for the journal Current Biology, the skin of the fish catches the most part of the incident light due to the dense packing melanosome — intracellular structures that contain the pigment melanin. The discovery could underpin a new class sorcery materials.
Sunlight almost never penetrates to a depth of 200 meters below the sea surface. However, some of the live at this depth the predators have sharp eyesight and can spot prey, even at very low light levels. To protect yourself from them, other types of deep-sea animals have to rely on camouflage.
A team of researchers led by Alexander Davis (Alexander L. Davis) from Duke University decided to find out how the masking of deep-sea fishes, painted black. They studied the structure of the skin 18 fish species from seven groups, which were caught by trawl during research cruises in the Gulf of Mexico and Monterey Bay. To keep caught instances of life, they were placed in chilled seawater, and then measured the reflectivity of their skin when the wavelength of light is 480 nanometers. This corresponds to the length of light that penetrates into the deeper layers of water or is emitted inhabited by bioluminescent organisms.
Leather 16 species of fish reflected less than 0.5 per cent of the light that allows you to take it to sorcery materials. Two fish species reflected less than 0.6 percent of the world. The anglerfish of the genus Oneirodes reflectivity was a record low and amounted to 0.044 per cent at the wavelength of light is 480 nanometers. When testing the light with a length of 350 to 700 nanometers leather angler fish on average reflect 0,051 percent of the incident light. This corresponds to indicators, characteristic for sveshtarovo plumage of some species of birds of Paradise (Paradisaeidae) (0,05-0,31 percent). For comparison, the black paper reflects about ten percent of the world, and sorceria materials from carbon nanotubes — 0.045 percent.
The studied fish are of average size, so that they can develop sorcerous disguise not only for protection from predators, and for hunting. For example, anglerfish Oneirodes sp. and igoroty Eustomias spp. and Astronesthes micropogon attract victims bioluminescent lure. Sorcery skin allows them to remain invisible. In most species sorcerra leather covers most of the body, but some is only in some areas. For example, cyclothone Cyclothone acclinidens covers the intestines — this is probably a device that allows you to eat the glowing organisms and not to pretend, until they are digested.
To understand how deep-sea fish it is possible to achieve such a low reflectivity, the authors have studied the skin sorcery nine species of the six groups under electron and light microscope. The obtained data is compared with information about the six species, painted black.
It turned out that pigment cells sorcery fish form a continuous layer lying close to the surface of the skin. Melanosomes (organelles containing melanin) in these cells were very tightly Packed. This structure allowed them to capture most of them falling on the photons or redirect them to other melanosomes. Interestingly, this adaptation independently from each acquired deep-sea fish from multiple groups.
Natural structures, e.g. wings of butterflies and the feathers of birds of Paradise, has inspired scientists to create sorcery materials that are used in optics. Unfortunately, they are very expensive and fragile. Perhaps the relatively simple structure of the skin sorcery fish will form the basis for more sophisticated solutions.
Last year, scientists were able to assemble the genome of the sea slug Pseudoliparis swirei most deep-water fish in the world, living at a depth of more than eight kilometers. This allowed to learn more about adaptations to life in the vast depths and at high pressure. In particular, the sea slugs were fixed mutations that reduced mineralization of the bones and worsened vision. Simultaneously, the increased number and increased expression of genes governing the cell membranes.
Sergey Knee High