The risk of developing chronic diseases after the age of 40 is associated with the maintenance of a certain lifestyle. It found American scientists who analyzed data on over 116 thousand participants from 12 different studies. It turned out that those who maintain a body mass index below 25, and adhere to at least two of the three rules (no Smoking, moderate to consume alcohol and engage in physical activity), live on average 70.3 years without chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory tract. Article published in JAMA Internal Medicine.
It is known that in order to be healthy and live a long life, you need to follow a certain way of life. Recommendations, however, there are many: for those who want to lead a long and healthy life, I advise you to follow the diet, consumption of alcohol and drugs, Smoking, physical activity, hygiene, sleep, excess weight and even water intake.
It is clear that each of these factors separately, in reality, affect human health — but it is not always clear how it is influenced by their combinations, and also — which of the combinations is considered the most effective. For example, two years ago, scientists found outthat the average life expectancy increases, the observance of five rules: not to smoke, exercise, control weight, follow the diet and restrict the consumption of alcohol.
Solya Nyberg (Nyberg Solja) from the University of Helsinki and her colleagues decided to determine the optimal combination of factors of a healthy lifestyle which reduces the risk of chronic diseases after the age of 40. To do this they combined data from 12 European studies with a total sample of 116043 person. Factors that were considered scientists, there were four: the body mass index, Smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Each of the habits, depending on the severity, were given a score from 0 to 2: for example, if the participant has quit Smoking, he got a 1 if smokes still — 2, and if you never smoked at all, then 0. From scores on each habit was a total score from 0 to 8.
As the main indicator of health scientists estimated the number of years lived without chronic diseases: diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer. For all the research chronic disease diagnosed 17383 people.
Researchers found that one additional point increases the number of years lived without chronic diseases, by 0.96 years for males and 0.89 for females. If you compare the healthy group with the least healthy, the participants in the first managed to live without chronic diseases, almost ten years longer: a 9.9 for men and 9.4 for women.
The healthiest combination was the control over weight (a body mass index below 25 kilograms per square meter) and at least two of the three remaining factors: Smoking cessation, moderate alcohol consumption and physical activity. Participants who adhered to this way of life, managed to survive, on average, 70.3 years without chronic diseases.
The authors thus concluded that a healthy lifestyle — at least when it comes to chronic diseases — can be different and still be optimal. The lack of excess weight, apparently, is key.
By the way, with life expectancy obesity in itself has nothing to do: two years ago, scientists found outthat in the absence of other metabolic disorders, excess weight increases the risk of death from various causes.