Gravity assist Venus will help to save fuel during the flight to Mars, as well as to reduce the duration of missions, the researchers report in the report prepared for Planetary Science and Astrobiology Decadal Survey 2023-2032. In addition, it will simplify the study of Venus, allowing astronauts to control it sent to the spacecraft in real-time.
Gravity maneuvers are often used to disperse and automatic interplanetary stations be sent to remote objects in the Solar system. Without them, many contemporary mission is simply not feasible, since the gravity loss during space flight is huge. To low-earth orbit (to achieve this it is necessary to develop speed of 8 kilometers per second) to reach Mars for romanovskoj trajectory, it is necessary to accelerate to 3.5 kilometers per second, and to fly to Jupiter for 6 kilometers per second. Thus according to the Tsiolkovsky formula, every 3 kilometers per second of additional acceleration can triple a launch mass of space systems.
Given the fact that for space flights today as six decades ago, use chemical engines (which imposes restrictions on the amount of energy that can be derived from these), in the end, payload far the flight is only a few percent from that shown on the orbit of the masses, and that, in turn, only a few percent of the starting mass of the rocket.
This is why the engineers to save fuel using the gravity of other massive celestial bodies. for Example, the spacecraft “Voyager-1 and Voyager-2” used the gravitational maneuvers near Jupiter and Saturn, and the Rosetta has performed four maneuver Earth and Mars. Now scientists propose to use for the flight to the Red planet, the gravity of Venus.
A group of physicists and engineers under the leadership of Isenberg Noam (Noam. R. Izenberg) of Johns Hopkins University calculated that flying over Venus would be much more convenient than flying to Mars directly, which requires that the Land came to the red planet as close as possible (this is called opposition), which happens only once every 26 months. In the case of a gravitational maneuver at Venus, the confrontation between the planets will occur every 19 months, which will allow you to send mission to Mars often.