Astronomers have summed up three-year observational campaign to study the atmosphere of Jupiter, which was attended by space telescope “Hubble”, a ground-based telescope “Gemini North” and interplanetary station “Juno”. Were able to determine that the most often lightning on the gas giant flashed in cyclonic eddies and larger convective cells, and that dark area in the famous Great Red Spot are gaps in the cloud layers, not individual dark clouds. Article published in the journal The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, briefly about it it is told on the website of the Observatory “Gemini”.
Jupiter’s atmosphere consists mostly of hydrogen and helium, and small amounts of ammonia, methane, water, hydrogen sulfide and other compounds. The top layer of the lowermost layer of the atmosphere (troposphere) contains clouds formed crystals of ammonia ice, and beneath it lie clouds of particles of ammonium hydrosulfide. Even deeper are dense clouds of water droplets. At great depths the atmosphere is gradually transformed into a layer of liquid metallic hydrogen. Above the main cloud layers in the troposphere and stratosphere are layers of haze.
Chemical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere of Jupiter, such as education and evolution of the numerous streams, storms and vortices, much more complex than those observed in the Earth’s atmosphere, and still poorly understood. To understand them since July of 2016, planetary scientists helps automatic interplanetary station “Juno”. At the same time, for a more detailed and accurate interpretation of the data received by the apparatus, the constant monitoring of Jupiter for the past three years are the space telescope Hubble and ground-based 8-meter telescope “Gemini North”, tooled NIRI (Near Infrared Imager)operating in the infrared wavelength range. “Juno” capable of detecting thunderstorms and determine their location, allowing them to be used as a marker of convective processes that transfer heat from inner layers of Jupiter to the tops of the clouds. The station also sees gaps in the cloud layers and is able to learn high convective towers similar to cumulonimbus clouds on Earth. “Hubble” and “Gemini North” has obtained data on the structure of clouds, lying at different heights, and image, obtained a ground-based telescope, was one of the most clear.