Researchers have found a link between migration to Europe in the Neolithic and bronze age immigrants from the Middle East and from the black sea region and reduction of the areas of deciduous forests on the continent. Article published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
Deforestation of Europe began about 6 thousand years ago. It was uneven: on the Atlantic coast is faster than in Central Europe and in Scandinavia slower. A group of scientists from Copenhagen and Plymouth universities suggested that it could be related to migrations of people. The continent’s indigenous population were hunters and gatherers. Forest also drove immigrants from other regions practice other forms of agriculture. In particular, the researchers decided to compare the dynamics of deforestation with the spread across Europe of culture of the Neolithic farmers from Anatolia (now Turkey), as well as representatives of the pit archaeological culture of the Northern black sea (today southern and Ukraine). Presumably, immigrants from the Middle East brought to Europe agriculture and, thus, the “Neolithic revolution” (transition from foraging to food producing households). “Yamniki” were nomadic pastoralists. They are considered the most probable by prindeville.
To trace the migration routes of scientists headed Rasimo Fernando (Fernando Racimo) have used published deciphered the genomes of people of the Neolithic and later periods, whose graves archaeologists found in different parts of Europe. By using the Ohana they reveal the ancestral components of indigenous hunters and gatherers, Neolithic farmers and “pit culture people”. If the ancestral component of a particular group exceed 50 percent of the genome, they took a sample to this group. Since all the genomes used were tied to dated archaeological sites, the researchers were able to create dynamic distribution maps for each of the three groups on the continent.
It turned out that the dynamics of the spread of the Neolithic farmers almost coincides with the spread of culture linear band pottery in Central Europe and of the impresso culture in southern Europe. The peak of settlement occurred in the period 8500 – 6376 years ago, and is now associated with ancestral components are preserved mainly in the Mediterranean Europeans.
The genome of the same “pit culture people” was distributed along with the Yamna culture and the battle axe culture in Central and Eastern Europe. Now associated with ancestral components dominate throughout Europe, especially to the North line of the Alps.
The frontier of settlement of the Neolithic farmers were moving at an average speed of 1.8 kilometers per year, and the “pit culture people” — from 4.2 to 9.3 kilometers per year. The researchers attribute this to the fact that “yamniki” unlike farmers, moved on foot, and on horseback.
Your cards migration scholars have correlated the dynamic maps of vegetation cover. These maps were obtained in the framework of the research project “the Deforestation of Europe” at the Plymouth University on the analysis of the sediments in the soil of plant pollen. It turned out that the resettlement of the “pit culture people” is highly correlated with the reduction of the area of deciduous forests. In particular, the beginning of the period of their “genetic dominance” in Europe coincides with the accelerating process of deforestation of the continent.
The researchers could not determine was whether migration “pit culture people” a cause or a consequence of deforestation, in other words, if they took the forests or migrated to the lands where the forest thinned by climate or some other reasons.
In 2019 paleogenetic proved the relationship of the “pit culture people” with a modern population of Northern India, especially the higher castes — Brahmins and warriors. Thereby confirmed the view of these nomads as the conquerors of vast territories and native speakers of proto-Indo-European language (an ancient elite language of North India — Indo-European Sanskrit).