published the results of a project in which several research groups
tried to reproduce the experiments on cold nuclear fusion.
Researchers have failed to identify any excess energy that
once again refutes the arguments of the supporters of the reality of this effect. The
at least, the authors do not think their work is useless: in the process there is a very useful piece of tech and has made several discoveries in materials science that can be useful, for example, in hydrogen energy, write they in the journal Nature.
Cold fusion (cold fusion), which is also called low energy nuclear reactions
(Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions, LENR) is a hypothetical type of nuclear
transformations at temperatures close to room, unlike “hot” fusion, which takes place in
the interiors of stars and during the explosion of a thermonuclear bomb at high pressures and
temperatures in millions of degrees Kelvin.
Modern physics does not
allow for cold fusion, as at moderate temperatures
the kinetic energy of the nuclei is not sufficient to overcome the Coulomb
repulsion due to similar charges, and synthesis, that is, the fusion of light nuclei with
turning more severe, can occur only when contact of the particles.
However, in 1989, came a resonant study of chemists Martin
Of Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, who claimed that they were able to detect the release of the excess energy in
the electrolysis of heavy water on the surface of palladium electrode. The authors stated that in their experiments is the conversion of deuterium to tritium or helium, but the vast majority of attempts to replicate their experiment failed. The scientific community has come to the conclusion about the inaccuracy of the initial results.
Since then, appeared
many reports of similar effects in a variety of systems, including
among the living, but they were either recognized by the scientific community false,
or carried out without sufficient rigor to check the availability effect. This
the situation is made study cold fusion outside of science, and this area is now mainly engaged fans, and not
However, the potential
advantages of such nuclear transformations are unquestionable, and in 2015, Google has launched a project, in which about
30 scientists from several laboratories tried to repeat rejected by science
results with the use of modern technology. The initiative was allocated
$ 10 million.
In an article published in Nature, describes the current results and describes the prospects for their continuation.
The task of scientists was to conduct carefully planned experiments and experimental
protocols which will establish clear limits on the possible range
variables, which could leak cold fusion. If scientists would manage it
to fix, they had to formulate the defining experiment that
can follow researchers from other groups and to verify the existence of the phenomenon.
Scientists have tried
to implement the three previously proposed schemes. The first is the inclusion of palladium
the object of large quantities of deuterium, which presumably should be enough to
run reactions. However, at high concentrations, the researchers failed
to obtain stable samples. The second experiment was an attempt to repeat the experiments
the bombardment of palladium pulses of the hot deuterium ions, resulting
which supposedly turns the tritium. The third option suggests heating
metal powders in hydrogen-rich environment.