Extract of larvae of parasitic nematodes has anti-inflammatory effect in the immune reactions of the second type, which lie at the basis of allergies and asthma. The active ingredient of larvae — glutaraldehydes — reduces the secretion of Pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in human macrophages inhibits migration of granulocytes to the site of inflammation and stops allergic reactions in mice, according to a paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
Parasitic worms cause the body to host a protective immune response. To survive, helminths suppress the host immune system: they have mechanisms for inhibition of inflammatory processes, including inflammation of the second type that causes bronchial asthma and allergic reactions. For example, intestinal parasites of rodents Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri emit substances which suppress allergic airway inflammation in mice.
Scientists from Germany, Sweden and Switzerland under the direction of Julia Esser-von Byrne (Julia Esser-von Bieren) from the technical University of Munich examined the influence of substances the larvae of the nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri polygyrus to inflammation of the second type. In mice caused an allergic reaction to dust mites and intranasally extract of larvae of nematodes. The extract is also added to the culture of human macrophages, which artificially induced the secretion of eicosanoids. These substances are key factors in inflammatory processes of the second type.
Moreover, tried the effect of extract of larvae of nematodes in the participation of granulocytes (a subtype of white blood cells) in AspireRevo inflammation in asthma. Patients with this disease are gathered selection of nasal polyps and leukocytes. They were grown in culture and observed the migration of granulocytes to the polyps in the presence of the extract of the larvae of the worms.
The extract of the larvae of the nematodes reduced the symptoms of allergies of the respiratory tract and the number of markers of inflammation in the lungs (p < 0.05). In macrophages, to which was added the extract, the profile of allocation of eicosanoids is shifted with proinflammatory factors to regulatory. Chemotaxis of granulocytes to the nasal polyps of patients with aspirinbuy asthma decreased significantly (p < 0.01).
To determine what substances help the larvae of hookworms to regulate the inflammation of the second type, from the extract identified a single protein fraction using gel permeation chromatography. Their action was evaluated by its ability to inhibit proinflammatory eikosanoid.
The active substance was an enzyme glutamatdekarboksilazy. When it was blocked by the specific inhibitor betonolom (it is used as a de-worming medications) or antibodies, she stopped to change the profile of eicosanoids in macrophages. The researchers created a recombinant glutamatdekarboksilazy and it was added in the culture of macrophages or were administered intranasally to mice with allergic reactions. In both cases, the enzyme effectively inhibited the inflammatory process (p < 0.05).
Parasitic worms are not the only animals that are associated with the suppression of allergies. Children who grow up in a house with Pets are less likely to occur the allergic to fur and pollen. More than Pets, the less the likelihood of developing allergies. Not only animals, but also bacteria can help protect against allergies if they live in the intestine of the pregnant woman.