The main reason for the fading of the painting of Munch “the Scream” was the humidity

Famous
a painting by
Munch’s “The Scream”
gradually
lost —
yellow and orange paint it pale
becoming beige.
For a long time it was believed that the main
the cause of the fading
—the light of day, so employees
The Munch Museum
kept the picture
in full
the dark, not
allowing her visitors.
New
study results
which published
in the journal Science
Advances,
showed
that discoloration
paintings in
mostly occurs under the action of
high humidity.
But moderate doses of sunlight,
according to the authors, for the picture is not dangerous,
so constantly
keep it in
the darkness is not required.

There
four versions
pictures
“Scream” (The Scream) made
in different techniques —
it will be about
the option which was painted in oil in
1910, and
currently on display in the Museum
Munch in Oslo.
Like many
other paintings by Munch, this painting
subject
fading (discoloration bright
pigments).
In 2004
year picture
was stolen from the Museum
and returned
in the hands
professionals only
in 2006. Two years of storage in suboptimal
conditions, and
also slight damage and subsequent
restoration
accelerated
the process of degradation
colors, and now
Central
the figure, as well as some parts of the sky
and lakes on
the picture was noticeably pale.

More
only fading is subject
orange
and yellow areas of the painting,
which
made colors
on the basis of
cadmium sulfide CdS
with a mixture of
zinc sulfide
ZnS.
Process
bleaching begins with the oxidation
cadmium sulfide
CdS
to
the corresponding sulfate
CdSO4.
Sulfate
cadmium
further captures water from the air,
forming a crystalline, and can also
to enter into the exchange reaction with carbon dioxide
gas and oxalic acid, becoming
in other salts of cadmium — carbonate CdСO3
and oxalate CdС2O4.
All
these salts are colorless, so bright orange
the pigment gradually fades,
becoming beige or pale brown.
Oxidation
cadmium sulfide is
under the action of oxygen and water from
air, previously it was believed that
he needed sunlight.
Therefore, in order to protect
“The scream” from
further fading,
staff
The Munch Museum kept
picture
complete darkness in the last few
years
almost
not shown
visitors.

A new study
chemists and restorers of
eight countries, led by Leticia
Monica (Letizia
Monico)
from the Institute
chemical Sciences and technologies Giulio
Natta in Italy
showed that
solar
light
playing in the fading
pictures
Munch
not a major role. The authors carefully
studied
surface
paintings
with
using multiple
non-invasive
(non-destructive)
methods
— IR spectroscopy,
spectroscopy
in the near infrared region and
fluorescent
spectroscopy.
In addition
that
a few particles
pigment
from different areas of the picture
was
investigated
using x-ray
Microspectroscopy with synchrotron
the source of radiation.

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