American psychologists have found that a two-dimensional projection of three-dimensional object is seen almost immediately when looking at the object, not being completed later. To do this, they conducted nine experiments, which used drawn and real coins (oval, round, standing on the edge or right angle) and asked to mark an oval. In all cases the participants are much slower found oval coins if they were standing near turned round, which seemed to be oval due to the perspective, although the entire treatment took a little more than half a second. Article published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
When working view two images — something that is projected on the retina, and that man eventually sees quite different. Take, for example, drawn round a coin that stands on edge if she turned side to the observer, it is not difficult to properly evaluate its shape, and the surrounding details (e.g., the platform on which coin is worth, and cast her shadow) will help to understand that the dime bulk — despite the fact that it exists in three — dimensional space in the figure.
If you just turn a coin, you can see that the change in the orientation of the coin gave her a two-dimensional projection of the oval shape. For the observer it does not cease to be round and voluminous, however, that the form seems different, not round but oval, it will still be noticed. Then, at what point do you receive this awareness — a good question: on the one hand, it is clear that on the retina the image is rotated, the coin is projected in the form of an oval, and the eyes oval and remains, and the understanding that the coin remained round, has been going through the visual cortex that can process the information necessary for the perception of volume. That is why ovality such a coin can be a primary symptom of which is successfully ignored.
On the other hand, the work of the visual cortex and processing of further information is also important for estimating the shape of an object — so the understanding that just turned the coin actually looks like the oval, may come too late: in the end, the person sees the world is big, but the perception of its projection may still require additional efforts.
In other words, the question boils down to whether the perceived object is two-dimensional really, or rather imagine so after the whole process of perception is fully completed. This question, despite centuries of debate by psychologists and philosophers, is still, in fact, remains — largely due to the fact that to obtain the empirical data for his decisions quite difficult.
Jorge Morales (Jorge Morales) of Johns Hopkins University and his colleagues have tried to solve this question experimentally, and spent nine online experiments using the drawn coin. In the first experiment, the volunteers (there were 100) showed a screen with two platforms marked with numbers 1 and 2, each of which appeared standing on the edge of the coin: one of them was always oval, and the second was round and stood either directly or were rotated 45 degrees so that it looked oval. Participants needed as quickly as possible by pressing a number (1 or 2) corresponding to the platform on which stood an oval coin.