Canadian and American scientists were able to assess the influence of psychological, social, economic and behavioral factors on mortality in old age. Using information about 13611 people in age from 52 to 104 years, scientists have found that, in addition to Smoking and alcohol abuse, the risk of death within six years after the study began was higher, for example, the divorced, those who have experienced financial difficulties, was never married and was not happy with my life, write the scientists in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Assessing the risk of premature death, researchers often focus on those factors that clearly affect physical health: nutrition, physical activity, Smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as, for example, indicators of metabolism in the body. Slightly less obvious is the relationship of longevity with other factors — psychological, economic and social — although it is also being studied quite often.
The problem with most studies that focused on exploring third-party, directly unrelated to health factors on the risk of premature death that most of the time they devoted to the study of one or more pre-selected factors such as, for example, in a study that indicated the relationship of domestic violence on the risk of diabetes and premature death from all causes. Eli Puterman (Eli Puterman) from the University of British Columbia and his colleagues decided to approach the matter comprehensively for their study, they selected 57 of factors, among them the classic habits (consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and physical activity) and social factors (for example, whether the person is divorced, if he felt lonely, been subjected to discrimination, and how he communicates with family and friends) and psychological aspects (traits of the Big five, pessimism, anxiety, temper tantrums, etc.). In addition, the researchers also collected information about the child participants and their parents: for example, family income and how unfavourable was the situation in the house — both economically and psychologically.
In total, the study involved 13611 people aged from 52 to 104 years (mean age 69.3 years): all of them filled out the questionnaire once, and scientists followed them, recording mortality within six years. During the analysis, the researchers reviewed 57 regression models with each factor separately, and as a side variables took into account nationality, age and education.
Of all the factors scientists have identified ten significantly associated with mortality within six years of the study. In addition to Smoking, where the risk increased by 91 percent if the participant has smoked, and 32 percent if smoked, but quit, scientists have also isolated a divorce (44 percent), alcohol abuse (36 percent), financial constraints (32 percent), unemployment (32 percent), dissatisfaction with life (31%), lack of marriage (30 percent), bad mood (23%) and did you ever party food coupons (28 percent). Among other factors that have been associated with increased risk of death over the six years, scientists have also identified, for example, bad relations with relatives, anxiety, and daily discrimination.
The authors concluded that, in addition to relatively obvious factors that can increase the risk of death in the elderly through direct effects on health, also need to consider third-party factors: social, psychological and economic. The analysis, according to the researchers, will allow to revise already obtained in other studies results and also to take into account the revealed factors in the framework, for example, preventive therapy.
Such a comprehensive analysis of the factors (though not with the classical regression model to assess the risk, and using the curve of spec) last year helped to assess the impact of gadgets on adolescent health: according to him, gadgets for young people about the harmful as wellas milk and potatoes.