The Turing prize for 2019 was awarded for computer graphics

The Association for computing
technology announced the winners of the Turing award for 2019 — they were Americans Patrick
The Hanrahan (Patrick Hanrahan) and Edwin Catmull (Edwin Catmull). The award for
outstanding achievements in the field of Informatics received researchers
developed innovative methods of computer graphics, which today
widely used in the film, says on the official website
award.

The Turing award is
annual award for researchers in the field of Informatics, which presents the international
The Association for computing machinery. The award is named in honor of the eminent British
mathematics and computer science of the XX century Alan
Turing, who laid the foundations of theoretical computer science long before
the first electronic computers. In particular, his work allowed for the first time
to correctly define the concept of algorithm and computability.

The Turing prize is awarded
since 1966, one or more specialists. In the twenty-first century, the award began to sponsor a large company in the field of information
technologies such as Intel and Google. Thanks to their
support since 2007, the winners were to receive additional cash prizes
the amount of 250 thousand U.S. dollars, while in 2014 this sum increased to one
million dollars.

Over the years
became the winners of many famous researchers, such as Donald Knuth and
Tim Berens-Lee. Last year the award went to the founders of modern
architectures of artificial neural networks. Often the award is called the equivalent
The Nobel prize for computer science.

This year the award
got Patrick Hanrahan and Edwin Catmull key figures in the history
the American Studio Pixar, involved in the creation of animated videos
and computer special effects. Catmull was one of the founders of the company, and Hanrahan
became one of the first employees in 1986. They received the award “for
a fundamental contribution to three-dimensional computer graphics and a revolutionary impact
relevant developments on the generation of images by computer in the field
cinema and other applications.”

Catmull received a PhD in computer science in
The University of Utah in 1974, one of his supervisors was
the founder of the field of computer graphics Ivan Sutherland, also a winner
the Turing award in 1988. In the thesis Catmull instead of polygons introduced
a fundamentally new description of curved regions that resulted in
two new methods: Z-buffering, and texture creation. The first allows you to work
with the depth of the image in computer graphics, and the second puts in conformity
three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional image.

The Hanrahan received a PhD in Biophysics from the University of Wisconsin
Madison in 1985. At Pixar he was
a leading developer of new graphic system, thanks to which it became
possible to represent curved surfaces with realistic properties and
lighting. One of the key innovations was the shaders, which
the program processed the reflected light. Also, Hanrahan had invented a display
projections of complex three-dimensional objects, such as smoke, and developed
ways realistic rendering of hair and skin with subsurface scattering
light.

One of the first animated
films created with a full use of technologies of three-dimensional graphics,
was “toy Story” in 1995. All relevant methods were invented a few years earlier, but the computing power of computers not
enough for a full-scale application. Overall, the programs that Pixar used to create the 44 of the 47 nominees
for the award “Oscar” for best visual effects, including “Titanic”, “Avatar”,
Lord of the rings episodes I-III of the Saga “Star wars.”

In computer graphics there are other current developments. So, previously, researchers presented an algorithm for describing three-dimensional models in several lines, used neural networks to create realistic 3D models of the area and taught a neural network to convert 2D pictures to a 3D model based on the object’s surface.

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