Climatologists have created a comprehensive database of tornadoes that took place in our country and 14 neighboring States from the X century to 2016, and found that, contrary to prevailing notions about the rarity of tornadoes in this area, they appear regularly, following a pronounced annual and diurnal cycles. Their accurate forecasting is important, as they cause significant damage and in the future will begin to occur more frequently due to climate change. The results of the study and the database published in the journal Monthly Weather Review.
It is believed that tornadoes in the Northern part of Eurasia are extremely rare and even more rarely are powerful. Their dynamics in this region is practically not investigated — people do not know where or when a tornado will occur next time, and for 30 years scientists did not return to the issue of the threat of tornadoes for almost half of the largest continent. However, it is important to study and accurately as possible to predict these natural phenomena, because they possess destructive power: some tornadoes of F0 — weakest on the scale An (in this scale of six grades with F0 F5, arranged in order of increasing wind speed) — able to rip out trees with shallow roots and damage the lines of communication.
Alexander Chernokulsky (Alexander Chernokulsky) from the Institute of atmospheric physics of the earth RAS named and his colleagues have created the largest database of tornadoes that took place from the tenth century to 2016 in the Northern part of Eurasia. It covers 15 countries —, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
The study authors recorded 2879 of occurrence of tornadoes over land and water described in historical records, the database Eastview (it contains issues of the newspaper “Izvestia” and “Pravda” in the Soviet era), regional media, scientific publications and social networks. The term “tornado” (the American synonym for “tornado”) in our country did not appear until the nineteenth century, so the researchers focused in on the word “hurricane”, “whirlwind” and “storm”. Even in the modern era, many journalists and eyewitnesses of the incident called natural phenomena incorrectly, so climate scientists first drew attention to the completeness of the information provided and included in the database only those cases for which was described by the wind speed, the width and the length of the path of a tornado and damage caused by it.
Not all included in the database of tornadoes occurred with the same reliability, so the reliability of the data was evaluated, and details were also included in the table. For example, the historical chronicle is the only source of information about the tornadoes until the XVIII century, they were referred 134 cases to check which is almost impossible. On the contrary, in the modern era the tornadoes shoot on video and spread in social networks, and local media actively publish information about all the notable weather events. Such cases are the authors of the study checked the satellite images, which clearly can be traced the destruction of forests and urban buildings.