Scientists have disproved the notion that white color fluffy OS-Germans allows them mimikrirovat under the fruits of the creosote Bush and hide from predators. It turned out, Bush was brought to North America much later than the local Germans became white, and the reflectance of its fruit differs from the abdomen of the OS. But the white insects are heated significantly less than their orange cousins — probably the color is an adaptation to hot desert conditions, write the scientists in the journal Biology Letters.
Female OS-Germans bezkryla, and their body is covered with a fuzz of thick hairs is that they are called velvet ants. In the deserts of North America, many German women are pale with black paws, and individuals of three species completely white. Made to believethat white pubescence helps wasps to mimic the fruits of the creosote Bush. However, these plants are native to South America, and in the North they had introduced relatively recently, and it’s unclear whether the white wasps-the Germans have evolved to blend in with fluffy fruit, or their color has other functions.
Biologists from the United States under the leadership of Joseph Wilson (Joseph Wilson) from the University of Utah have studied the evolution and possible functions of white color OS-Germans of the genus Dasymutilla. The researchers examined the phylogeny of the OS to know when they have become white, and also measured coefficient reflection brushes insects of different kinds and fruits of the creosote Bush. In addition, using computer visual models, the researchers assessed how the OS and the fruits I see predators with di-, tri – and tetrachromatic vision (comprehensive analysis is needed due to the fact that the Germans ecology are poorly known and their predators is unknown).
Biologists also suggested that bright coloration may participate in thermoregulation of insects and helps them not to overheat in the desert. To test this hypothesis, insects of different colors (white and orange) was placed in a Petri dish with sand, heat it under a hot lamp and measured the temperature on the surface and inside the abdomen.
The researchers found that the genus Dasymutilla appeared about 21 million years ago, and the white color was first developed about six million years ago, whereas the creosote bushes were imported to North America only a half million years ago.
Reflection spectra of insects of different species were similar and covered as ultraviolet waves, and visible man — which means he was really white, even for those animals who see ultraviolet light. But a fluffy range of the fruit was different and poorly covered the UV part, and the visual model showed that the OS and color of the fruit differs.