Until the mid XX century a person was to instill mainly from bacterial diseases — tuberculosis, tetanus, cholera: their major pathogens, they are easy to consider and easy to grow. Viruses always work was much harder — especially given that they do not multiply outside the cells. The situation turned the “father of modern vaccines” — John Enders, Frederick Robbins and Thomas Weller, who learned to grow in cell culture the polio virus.
After this “fathers” was awarded the Nobel prize, and the industry rolled up sleeves and undertook the extermination of viruses: 1952 — the first working polio vaccine, 1954 — Japanese encephalitis, 1957 — adenovirus infection, 1963 — measles, 1967 — mumps, 1970 — rubella.
For the salvation of mankind there was a Protocol. Step one: isolate the virus. Step two: grow it in culture. Step three: to inactivate (neutralize) the enemy or take away his weakened options. Step fourth: check whether call the resulting viral particles immune response in animals. Step five: test the effectiveness and safety on humans. Half a century after the first experiments of Jenner’s development of viral vaccines of creative work has become technical.
Jenner has spent on his work for decades, his followers have learned to do it much faster. Since, as the polio “settled” in cell culture, prior to formal approval of the Salk vaccine almost seven years have passed. For the production of measles vaccine left about nine, rubella coped five, pig still holds the palm — four years from isolation of the virus to the vaccine.
By the eighties of the twentieth century, many viruses have remained elusive, but the first serious victory. With the help of antiviral vaccines not only managed to stop the polio epidemic in many countries, but also to completely eradicate smallpox. Perhaps, these achievements have allowed the Secretary of the Department of health Margaret Heckler on 23 April 1984, to promise the press that with a new, southcrete virus HTLV-III (later it will be fixed more known name HIV, or HIV)will be able to cope — that is, to make the vaccine just a couple of years.